عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Toq came to Iran from Central Asia as a branch of science and was then used in military establishment and religious communities, especially the rituals in Moharram. Toq structure and content changed in the Safavid period because of cultural conditions and it became distinct from its non-Iranian versions. In this period, Toq has been depicted as a plant surrounded with two or more dragons. Apart from this issue, since late 11th century a thin blade of steel with a design of floral motifs and a delicate lattice work has been replaced with the former thick brass one. Several decades later, lattice-work inscriptions decorated with delicate arabesque designs replaced the latter one. Making Iranian Toq continued until the early Qajar period but was then completely forgotten. Several reasons suggest that Iranian Toq is in fact a symbol of is a vegetable (plant) element aside which a serpent or dragon has laid. This element is also seen in mythologies and symbolisms are probably the origin of Iranian art and Toq. This is corroborated as serpent-tree image is seen in the symbolism of the ancient culture of China, West Asia, and Iran. Despite the positive/negative dual view to the serpent motif, this serpent can be recognized as the guardian of the tree of life.